Interest in Industrial Ethernet has produced an entirely new dictionary with specialist terms. Some of the most important terms are briefly explained here.
A block encoding system for FDDI and ATM. In 4B/5B encoding, all data is divided into 4-bit units (a nibble) and converted to 5-bit units (symbols) by reference to a matrix.
Standard IEEE Ethernet cabling system, where in contrast to 10Base2 and 10Base5 no bus coaxial cable is used, but each station has a star connection around the hubs using a 100 ohm UTP-cable. Despite this 10BaseT is restricted to 10 Mbps and permits cable lengths of up 100 m between station and hub.
Ethernet cable system using fibre optic cable. 10BaseFL represents all the functions for data transmission from a FOMAU to an active star coupler and connections between star couplers. Data is transmitted asynchronously and is downwardly compatible to the FOIRL standard. The maximum length of a 10Base-FL segment is 2000 m. The normal Ethernet repeater rules apply when reinforcing the signals via repeaters (a maximum of four repeaters in a single cascade). Terminal equipment is connected to 10BaseFL cable directly via optical ethernet adapters or external FOMAU transceivers (via an AUI interface).
100 Mpbs Fast Ethernet, based on 4B/5B encoding with fibre optics.
100 Mbps Fast Ethernet system, identical to operations in the 100BaseFx, but 850 nm fibre optic technology is used.
100 Mbps Fast Ethernet system based on 4B/5B encoding and transmission via two copper cables.
This term is used to describe Fast Ethernet technologies based on the 4B/5B encoding. Includes 100BaseTX and 100BaseFX systems.
The CSMA/CD group is the oldest working group in the 802 project. It defines the norms according to the CSMA/CD access procedures proposed by the DIX-group. This working group focuses on discussing high-speed protocols.
Function to update data especially the address buffer. An address is marked "old" after expiration of a time and will be deleted at next cycle, if it is not learned anew.
Stands for "Attachment Unit Interface". Interface between the transceiver and the network board.
Auto-negotiation means automatic recognition of the opposite end's functions. By using RJ45 plugs for the different protocols, from 10Base-T to 100Base-T, a compatibility problem occurs which is solved due automatic recognition of the opposite end. Using the auto-negotiation procedure, repeaters or terminal equipment can determine what functions the other end has, so that different devices can be configured automatically.
Bandwidth states how much information can flow within a set period from one location to the other. Units: Bps, Kbps, Mbps, Gbps.
Baud is the unit of step speed. A step always lasts for a pre-set time e. g. 1 bit, 1_character. If you multiply the number of bits per state with the baud rate you obtain the transmission speed. Only if the number of states is exactly two (i.e. encoding was carried out at a state of exactly 1 bit), is the baud rate exactly the same as the bit rate.
Bit is an artificial word made up of binary and digit and constitutes the smallest unit of digital information, either a 0 or a 1.
Bitrate is also referred to as transmission speed, transmission rate or data rate. It is the number of bits that are transmitted per unit of time (typically one second). The bitrate is stated in Bps (bits per second) or in the appropriate powers of 10 as Kbps, Mbps and Gbps. In American English the abbreviation Bps is used.
According to their OSI definition, bridges connect sub-network protocols on layer 2 of the OSI reference model.
A broadcast transmission is a simultaneous transmission from one point to all network stations.
Buses are connection systems for electronic and electrical components. The topology of a bus is always a physical medium which the individual components are connected to and which is terminated at both ends. Transmission on a bus can be done bit or byte parallel, as in the PC-bus, or serially, as for networks in bus topology.
Signifies compliance to features specified in EIA/TIA-568-5. With category 5 (cat. 5) components, networks can be set up that are suitable for all twisted-pair cable Ethernet transmission systems up to 100 Mbps, including 10Base-T and 100Base-TX.
The cat. 5e-cable is an extended version of cat. 5 for use in 1000-Base-T networks or for long-distance 100-Base-T network connections (350 m, compared with 100 m for cat. 5). It must fulfil the EIA/TIA 568A-5 specification.
CRC is an error correction method that creates checksums based on binary numbers by calculating the sums of data groups prior to transmission. CRC is based on the division of polynomials. The principal is that during cyclical block checking, the bits to be monitored are successively fed into a feedback shift register. The length and the number and position of the feedback from the register are stated according to each procedure. The checksum procedure detects individual errors reliably and multiple errors with a high degree of probability.
A crossover-cable is a special patch cable where the transmitter and receiver lines at one end have been swapped. Crossover-cables are used to connect two pieces of terminal equipment (computers) or two infrastructure components (switches). Modern switches, because of their auto-crossing function, make connecting normal patch cables with one another possible.
An access procedure where several network stations have access to the transmission medium. In the CSMA-system the transmitting station listens to the channel (carrier sensing) before it transmits. A station can then only transmit if the transmission medium has not yet been occupied by another station. If the transmission medium is occupied, the station waits till it is free and can transmit. Because of the signalling times it is still possible for two devices to transmit at the same time. To avoid data loss in this type of collision, both transmitters have to detect the collision (collision detect) and after a randomly-selected waiting time send each of their data packets again. CSMA/CD is a widespread standard process in 10-MBit-networks with hubs. In Industrial Ethernet networks the CSMA/CD system is only used rarely nowadays, because of high demands on network performance.
DCE (Data Communication Equipment)
Data communications facility. Any facility that can relay data between data terminal equipment. DCEs are part of the infrastructure and not terminal equipment.
(Data Terminal Equipment) data terminal unit: Every device in the network where a communications route starts or finishes. A station (computer or host) in the network that can transmit or receive data.
The error detection code is a detection code (CRC or checksum) used where errors are identified but not corrected as in ECC.
Ethernet is computer networking technology for local networks (LANs). It refers to cable types and signalling for the bit transfer layer (physical layer), packet formats and protocols for checking media access (media access control, MAC)/link layer of the OSI model. Ethernet is standardised to a large extent in the IEEE norm 802.3.
Nowadays a very widespread version of the Ethernet with 100 Mbps over twisted pair cable according to category 5 or higher. The maximum range is 100 m.
This is a function to modify transmission to the capacity of the receiver. Flow control regulates transmission between the transmitter and receiver by causing the transmitter only to send as much data as the receiver can deal with. The different types of Ethernet have different flow control systems. In credit systems (FO cable) the receiver relays to the transmitter the number of data packets that can be transmitted without confirmation. Duplex connections use the PAUSE signal for flow control and back pressure is used in semi-duplex systems to control the data rate.
The process whereby frames are relayed from one port to another in the switch.
A frame is a data transmission frame on the link layer (layer 2 in the OSI model), which includes the header and trailer information that the bits transmission layer requires for transmission. All frame formats together form the start delimiter of a frame, the destination and source address (destination and source address), the data itself of course and an errorchecking device (a frame check sequence). A maximum of 1500 bytes, with VPN-information of 1524 bytes of payload data per packet are possible in the Ethernet.
A version of the Ethernet operating at a data transmission rate of 1000 Mbps.
Fibre optic cables
A type of cable with fibre optics or plastic core that transmits digital signals in the form of light pulses. (Wave lengths 850 nm in 10BaseFL and 100BaseSX or 1300 nm in 100BaseFX).
Abbreviation for General Packet Radio Service (standard mobile phone system). GPRS allows a data transmission rate of up to 171.2 kbps and is suitable for internet access. GPRS is based on GSM technology using an Internet protocol (IP).
The semi-duplex procedure allows bidirectional use of a single transmission line. The interfaces however can only either transmit or receive at any given time.
A hub is data communications facility (DCE) that makes it possible to connect three or more devices in a star topology. Modern Ethernet installations hardly use hubs any more but use switches for this purpose because of the higher network output that occurs as a result and the probable transmission times.
Association of American Engineers dealing with norm issues.
The internet is the world's largest network. The internet was developed back in the 1960's for military purposes and approved for commercial use in the 1990's. Internet data transmission is based on the TCP/IP protocol.
This error is caused by a constant transmission from a network interface card (NIC). It violates the CSMA/CD rules, hence it cause high utilisation. Cause by faulty NIC or transceiver with transmitting frames greater than 1518 with bad CRF/FCS.
Collision is when two or more stations transmit at the same time in a joint data channel - e.g. a semi-duplex Ethernet or a shared Ethernet. This means that the data transmitted are worthless because they overlay. By overlaying both signals, the signal level increases to what is known as the collision level. This aborts the transmission to both stations.
A collision domain is a segment of a CSMA/CD network. In 802.3 Ethernet networks all terminal equipment is on a physical Ethernet segment, also including equipment that is interconnected via a repeater, on the same collision domain. In contrast to repeaters that do not affect the collision domain, bridges and routers separate the collision domains.
(Local Area Network) local network e.g. within a building (see also WAN).
Link Integrity Test
This test ensures that the Ethernet link is connected properly and that the signals are transmitted correctly. This is a helpful extra but does not guarantee that the link functions perfectly.
The link layer in the OSI reference model.
The NLP pulse is a recognition pulse that is transmitted from 10Base-T-stations to 100Base-T stations for auto-negotiation. The NLP is a periodic pulse with an interval of 16 +/- 8 ms.
The MAC address is the six byte long hardware address that uniquely identifies a node in the network. The MAC address is hard-coded onto a chip and cannot be manipulated. MAC addresses are assigned according to a particular key that includes unique adapter recognition, identification of the manufacturer and an ID for operating and managing.
Signal encoding where the binary information is shown by the sign of a change in voltage within the bit time. This means that transmitters and receivers are very easy to synchronise, as the transfer in the middle of the bit time produces a reliable frequency. The first half of the bit time includes representing the complementary bit value to be transmitted, the second half represents the bit value (specified for IEEE 802.3 Ethernet and used in 10 Mbit networks).
The Physical Medium Attachment (PMA) and the Medium Dependent Interface (MDI) both form the actual transceiver (MAU) for the 802.3 standard. The MDI is the physical (electrical, optical) and mechanical interface up to the medium. In the different 802.3-types the interface has a different structure.
MDI stands for Medium Dependent Interface and refers to an Ethernet connection. Auto MDI/MDIX (autocrossing) makes the automatic modification of the transmitting and receiving line of a port possible, i.e. the connected Ethernet cable (crossed/uncrossed) and the configuration of the opposite station (MDI/MDIX) are recognised automatically and its own port is configured appropriately. So all auto MDI/MDIX ports can be used as uplink port.
Media converters connect different types of cable to one another and the structure and maintain the functions of the network. In its simplest form a media converter is a quadrupole in the form of a box or network adapter card with a power supply. It modifies different cables - coaxial cables, TP-cables and FO cables - and different plugs to fit one another. In this way media converters can for example be used to modify 100Base-TX to 100Base-FX or to convert monomode fibres to multimode fibres. By using media converters the boundaries of network extension can be increased for example by using fibre optic routes, on the other hand existing networks can be inexpensively integrated into new network concepts.
Multicast is a type of transmission from a single point to several subscribers at the same time (group).