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Chemical Process Equipment
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Process Design
Equipment
  Vendors' Questionnaires
  Specification Forms
Categories of Engineering Practice
Sources of Information for Process Design
Codes, Standards, and Recommended Practices
Material and Energy Balances
Economic Balance
Safety Factors
Safety of Plant and Environment
Steam and Power Supply
Design Basis
  Utilities
Laboratory and Pilot Plant Work
References











CHAPTER 2

FLOWSHEETS

Block Flowsheets
Process Flowsheets
Mechanical (P&I) Flowsheets
Utility Flowsheets
Drawing of Flowsheets
References
Appendix 2.1 Descriptions of Example Process Flowsheets



CHAPTER 3

PROCESS CONTROL

Feedback Control
  Symbols
  Cascade (Reset) Control
Individual Process Variables
  Temperature
  Pressure
  Level of Liquid
  Flow Rate
  Flow of Solids
  Flow Ratio
  Composition
Equipment Control
  Heat Transfer Equipment
  Distillation Equipment
  Liquid-Liquid Extraction Towers
  Chemical Reactors
  Liquid Pumps
  Solids Feeders
  Compressors
References



CHAPTER 4

DRIVERS FOR MOVING EQUIPMENT

Motors
  Induction
  Synchronous
  Direct Current
Steam Turbines and Gas Expanders
Combustion Gas Turbines and Engines
References



CHAPTER 5

TRANSFER OF SOLIDS

Slurry Transport
Pneumatic Conveying
  Equipment
  Operating Conditions
  Power Consumption and Pressure Drop
Mechanical Conveyors and Elevators
  Properties of Materials Handled
  Screw Conveyors
  Belt Conveyors
  Bucket Elevators and Carriers
  Continuous Flow Conveyor Elevators
Solids Feeders
References


CHAPTER 6

FLOW OF FLUIDS

Properties and Units
Energy Balance of a Flowing Fluid
Liquids
  Fittings and Valves
  Orifices
  Power Requirements
Pipeline Networks
Optimum Pipe Diameter
Non-Newtonian Liquids
 Viscosity Behavior
 Pipeline Design
Gases
  Isentropic Flow
  Isothermal Flow in Uniform Ducts
  Adiabatic Flow
  Nonideal Gases
Liquid-Gas Flow in Pipelines
  Homogeneous Model
  Separated Flow Models
  Other Aspects
Granular and Packed Beds
  Single Phase Fluids
  Two-Phase Flow
Gas-Solid Transfer
  Choking Velocity
  Pressure Drop
Fluidization of Beds of Particles with Gases
  Characteristics of Fluidization
  Sizing Equipment
References


CHAPTER 7

FLUID TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT

Piping
  Valves
  Control Valves
Pump Theory
  Basic Relations
  Pumping Systems
Pump Characteristics
Criteria for Selection of Pumps
Equipment for Gas Transport
  Fans
  Compressors
  Centrifugals
  Axial Flow Compressors
  Reciprocating Compressors
  Rotary Compressors
Theory and Calculations of Gas Compression
  Dimensionless Groups
  Ideal Gases
  Real Processes and Gases
  Work on Nonideal Gases
  Efficiency
  Temperature Rise, Compression Ratio, Volumetric Efficiency
Ejector and Vacuum Systems
  Ejector Arrangements
  Air Leakage
  Steam Consumption
  Ejector Theory
Glossary for Chapter 7
References



CHAPTER 8

HEAT TRANSFER AND HEAT EXCHANGERS

Conduction of Heat
  Thermal Conductivity
  Hollow Cylinder
  Composite Walls
  Fluid Films
Mean Temperature Difference
  Single Pass Exchanger
  Multipass Exchangers
  F-Method
  OMEGA-Method
  Selection of Shell-and-Tube Numbers of Passes
  Example
Heat Transfer Coefficients
  Overall Coefficients
  Fouling Factors
  Individual Film Coefficients
  Metal Wall Resistance
  Dimensionless Groups
Data of Heat Transfer Coefficients
  Direct Contact of Hot and Cold Streams
  Natural Convection
  Forced Convection
  Condensation
  Boiling
  Extended Surfaces
Pressure Drop in Heat Exchangers
Types of Heat Exchangers
  Plate-and-Frame Exchangers
  Spiral Heat Exchangers
  Compact (Plate-Fin) Exchangers
  Air Coolers
  Double Pipes
Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
  Construction
  Advantages
  Tube Side or Shell Side
  Design of a Heat Exchanger
  Tentative Design
Condensers
 Condenser Configurations
 Design Calculation Method
 The Silver-Bell-Ghaly Method
Reboilers
  Kettle Reboilers
  Horizontal Shell Side Thermosiphons
  Vertical Thermosiphons
  Forced Circulation Reboilers
  Calculation Procedures
Evaporators
  Thermal Economy
  Surface Requirements
Fired Heaters
  Description of Equipment
  Heat Transfer
  Design of Fired Heaters
Insulation of Equipment
  Low Temperatures
  Medium Temperatures
  Refractories
Refrigeration
  Compression Refrigeration
  Refrigerants
  Absorption Refrigeration
  Cryogenics
References




CHAPTER 9

DRYERS AND COOLING TOWERS

Interaction of Air and Water
Rate of Drying
  Laboratory and Pilot Plant Testing
Classification and General Characteristics of Dryers
  Products
  Costs
  Specification Forms
Batch Dryers
Continuous Tray and Conveyor Belt Dryers
Rotary Cylindrical Dryers
Drum Dryers for Solutions and Slurries
Pneumatic Conveying Dryers
Fluidized Bed Dryers
Spray Dryers
  Atomization
  Applications
  Thermal Efficiency
  Design
Theory of Air-Water Interaction in Packed Towers
  Tower Height
Cooling Towers
  Water Factors
  Testing and Acceptance
References









CHAPTER 10

MIXING AND AGITATION

A Basic Stirred Tank Design
  The Vessel
  Baffles
  Draft Tubes
  Impeller Types
  Impeller Size
  Impeller Speed
  Impeller Location
Kinds of Impellers
Characterization of Mixing Quality
Power Consumption and Pumping Rate
Suspension of Solids
Gas Dispersion
  Spargers
  Mass Transfer
  System Design
  Minimum Power
  Power Consumption of Gassed Liquids
  Superficial Liquid Velocity
  Design Procedures
In-Line-Blenders and Mixers
Mixing of Powders and Pastes
References
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Chemical Process Equipment
Description - Chemical Process Equipment
Comprehensive and practical guide to the selection and design of a wide range of chemical process equipment. Emphasis is placed on real-world process design and performance of equipment. Provides examples of successful applications, with numerous drawings, graphs, and tables to show the functioning and performance of the equipment. Equipment rating forms and manufacturers' questionnaires are collected to illustrate the data essential to process design. Includes a chapter on equipment cost and addresses economic concerns.

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